Annex A: - Assessments of Progress in Meeting the Standards of Section 498A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961

Annex A: Assessments of Progress in Meeting the Standards of Section 498A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961

Annex A: Assessments of Progress in Meeting the Standards of Section 498A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961


U.S. Government Assistance to and Cooperative Activities with Eurasia


BUREAU OF EUROPEAN AND EURASIAN AFFAIRS


January 2004


Report


Section 498A(a)(4): "respect international law and obligations and adhere to the Helsinki Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and the Charter of Paris, including the obligations to refrain from the threat or use of force and to settle disputes peacefully."
In November 1999, Armenia joined the other OSCE states in signing the Charter for European Security, which reaffirms full adherence to all OSCE documents already in force. However, Armenia does not recognize the borders of Azerbaijan as defined in OSCE documents at the time of accession. Armenia facilitated the opening of an OSCE office in Yerevan in 2000. As a result of the continuing conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh, Armenian military forces occupy a portion of the territory of Azerbaijan. Both Armenia and Azerbaijan periodically violate the cease-fire that has been in effect since May 1994; both countries participate actively within the OSCE Minsk Process, an initiative aimed at resolving the conflict.
Section 498A(a)(5): "cooperate in seeking peaceful resolution of ethnic and regional conflicts."
The OSCE created the Minsk Group in spring 1992 as the forum for a peaceful, negotiated resolution to the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh. The Government of Armenia continues its participation in the OSCE peace process. There has also been intermittent direct dialogue between the Armenian and Azerbaijani Governments. This dialogue and the Minsk Group process continue to hold the promise of achieving comprehensive settlement of the conflict. Both Azerbaijan and Armenia have expressed a commitment to continue working with the OSCE Minsk Group Co-Chairs to achieve a resolution of the conflict.
Section 498A(a)(6): "implement responsible security policies, including--
(A) adhering to arms control obligations derived from agreements signed by the former Soviet Union;
(B) reducing military forces and expenditures to a level consistent with legitimate defense requirements;
(C) not proliferating nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons, their delivery systems, or related technologies; and
(D) restraining conventional weapons transfers."
Armenia ratified the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty in October 1992 and the 1996 CFE flank agreement in May 1996. Armenia participated actively in negotiations to adapt the Treaty and, along with the other 29 CFE States, its representatives signed the Adapted CFE Treaty at the Istanbul Summit in 1999. Armenia has provided data on equipment as required by the Treaty. Armenia also has hosted on-site inspections, as provided for in the Treaty, and participates in the CFE Joint Consultative Group, the Treaty's implementation body, which meets in Vienna. Armenian compliance with CFE has been uneven. In addition to Armenia's longstanding failure to properly notify or carry out reductions required by the Treaty, there are serious concerns about the completeness of Armenia's data on equipment holdings. Also of concern are: evidence that Armenia may have failed to notify increases in unit holdings involving CFE Treaty limited equipment transferred from Russia, the fact that Armenia continues to station troops and CFE limited equipment on the territory of Azerbaijan without Azerbaijani permission, and evidence that Armenia made a late notification of the entry into service of multiple rocket launchers purchased from China. Another area of concern is Armenia's failure to report the apparent transfer of TLE from Russia in the mid-1990s. There has been no change in this issue by the Armenians. Armenia has taken no new steps toward resolving this issue since the Trilateral Commission, established in 1997 to investigate the transfers, stopped meeting in April 1998. Both Armenia and Azerbaijan have maintained that it is impossible for them to meet certain Treaty obligations because of security concerns associated with the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. This said, Armenia is engaged in discussions both in the CFE context and in the context of the Minsk Group process that may help to address a number of these issues.
Armenia is a participating State to the OSCE Vienna Document 1999 and its predecessor Vienna Document 1994. The Vienna Document is an OSCE regime of confidence and security building measures. Armenia submitted CSBM annual data declarations for 1996-2000 and has willingly undergone CSBM inspections and evaluation visits in accordance with the OSCE Vienna Document (1994 and 1999). In August 2000, Armenia hosted an air base visit and visits to a military facility in accordance with Vienna Document 1999 provisions. In September 2002 the Government of Armenia hosted a joint exercise in mountain rescue techniques with the U.S., Georgia and Russia, to which Turkey and Azerbaijan were also invited but did not participate. In summer 2003 Armenia hosted a successful Partnership for Peace (PfP) ground forces exercise, which included the participation of Turkish forces. 

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